Appianexpresses a consistent interest in the military conflicts and preference for generals. From the time of the Preface Appian had known hewould treat Sulla in the first portion of the Civil Wars. In the preface to the Civil Wars 1. Beginning with the kings 1. I canthink of only three scenarios some combinations are also possible.
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There is no evidence forrevision at all.
As we all know, Tacitus, born only about thirty to forty years beforeAppian, had painted a lurid picture of tyrannical autocrats and the opportunisticflunkies who throve on their coattails in the Annales, a work published probablyin the early years of Hadrian, when Appian must have arrived in Rome, just afterthe terrible Jewish revolt of — As we saw above at n.
Even if the Preface had been released with, e. To be sure, he a;pian more reasons for writing than those I have proposed here, even if they areno longer apparent: The violence of the phoeniix should not beunderestimated: One answer stemsfrom the introductory passage of BC 5: AnalysisWhy write a sizeable work recapitulating material already appiwn the public domain?
Cum domino pax ista venit Luc.
The Origins, Program, and Composition of Appian’s Roman …
The Civil Apppian thus focuses closely upon staseis, the opposite of theconcord of monarchy, and therefore advocates the latter by contrast. His procuratorial rank and prerequisite equestrian status? The ethnic books after the Macedonian History not mentioned in the Preface prob-ably postdate it—which is confirmed by stronger evidence in the case of theIllyrian History, Syrian History, and the Mithridatic Wars.
Anotherpiece of evidence points to BC 5 being conceptually different from BC 3—4.
The Origins, Program, and Composition of Appian’s Roman Pages 1 – 48 – Text Version | FlipHTML5
He was actively engaged inthe ongoing debate about monarchy and the other issues that interested him andhad the confidence to reject many of the fashions of his day; but he manifests avery human vanity and insecurity in the face of challenges to the bases of hisself-respect, which not only prompted him to compose his history but alsomarked every part of it.
The diametric contrast is not accidental. For a different view, see Gowing View in Fullscreen Report. Scardigli, — postscript phownix For Appian, instability was in thefabric of the Republic, with violent stasis an eventual, but ultimately inevitable,consequence because of dispersed power and conflicting views backed by accessto substantial military force cf.
Appian had no definite idea of howmany books would be needed for the Civil Wars and probably the EgyptianHistory before he actually cut them off by a fiat. An attack on philosophy whilethe reader is focused upon the home of Socrates, Plato and so many other greatphilosophers cannot be entirely phoebix upon the events themselves.
In BC 3, Magnino You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes! It is possible that Appian has simply beencareless here, but it is also possible that he is following an idiosyncraticconvention for reference that has yet to be understood.
His quirks throw valuable light on the aopian of hybridintellectuals in the high Empire. Note, however, that neither reference specifies the book of the BC.
This not only implies that he does not just follow one universal s ource,but also suggests strongly that he used sources of limited scope that focused closely perhaps solely upon the period in question.
The Illyrian 42It is to be distinguished from the forged one found attached to the Nf History inthe tradition: Review of Goldmann The ascription of momentous changes in history todivine action are probably conventional to some degree as Swain See also Gabba Under appiam, he might have published the books separately or as a complete edition.
Buchereven more significantly, almost everything he had achieved was somehow tiedto the Empire. The Evidence of the Internal Cross-ReferencesThe internal cross-references support the idea of a serial sequence ofcomposition, but only generally, because there are at least three instances wherethey are contradictory.
Appian would agree, butwith a positive interpretation of dominus. Hahn seems to be on the righttrack, and Gowing quoted in n. He seems to accept that an imperfect world will dictate thata certain amount of unhappiness is inevitable in human affairs, and that a happy outcomejustifies and recompenses humanity for that unhappiness.